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Complex Links between Natural Tuberculosis and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Infection in Wild Boar
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Create a Want BookSleuth Can't remember the title or the author of a book? This study provides insight into the coinfections occurring in free-ranging host populations that are naturally exposed to several pathogens. Using MTC and PCV2 as a case study, we showed that coinfection is a frequent event among natural populations that takes place early in life with complex effects on the hosts and outcome of infection, acting as a risk factor.
Regarding TB, Vicente et al. This implies that wild boars from the study region are exposed early in life to an extremely high infection pressure. For comparison, Vicente et al.
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Regarding coinfection data on these pathogens and Risco et al. Lymphoid depletion, a likely consequence of clinical PCV2 infection, is not the only mechanism through which PCV2 modulates immune function as cytokines and innate immune system play also a role in its pathogenesis [ 33 ]. There are several studies which show that an established immune profile against a given infection could affect the outcome of subsequent infections or vaccinations [ 17 , 48 — 50 ].
Since evidence of a dichotomy in the humoral and cellular immune responses exists in pigs [ 51 ], we suggest that early PCV2 infection somehow impairs the ability of wild boar piglets to respond to other infections, including MTC. However, the specific relations between PCV2 positivity by PCR and presence of TB-compatible lesions are not easy to interpret with the data obtained in this observational study.
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- Complex Links between Natural Tuberculosis and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Infection in Wild Boar.
Some rather counterintuitive findings include the negative association between both infections and the higher TB score in piglets. Some of these individuals could be lost from the population before being sampled during the hunting season, October to February , contributing to the observed age by infection interaction [ 36 ]. Subclinical PCV2 infection does not negatively affect the body condition [ 52 ].
It is also unlikely that TB-lesion presence per se had such an effect. Unpublished data from this study area show no evidence of poor body condition in TB-lesion positive wild boar. It is well known that management practices that promote aggregation of wild boar, such as supplementary feeding, are associated with higher infection risks by bacterial and viral pathogens including MTC and PCV2 e.
Thus, we propose that in the studied population, aggregation due to supplementary feeding could be the mechanism linking a high body condition to a high probability of coinfection. Supplementary fed wild boar would be in better condition, but at the same time, more likely to contact MTC and PCV2 through spatial aggregation at feeders.
By contrast, a low body condition would be associated with a lower chance of coinfection because of the lower spatial aggregation if no feeding takes place, but perhaps also because coinfected animals with a poor body condition are less likely to survive and therefore, to be sampled. We demonstrated that coinfection is a frequent event in this wild boar population, but the nature of this interaction was more complex than expected.
Moreover, there are many more coinfections likely to be occurring at the same time.
In the present study, two relevant pathogens were analyzed, but part of the findings may be due to other unknown infections and interactions taking place at the same time, in a much more complex multipathogen interaction network. Furthermore, this cross-sectional study is based on time point data and therefore the infection sequence cannot be established.
In some cases timing is important in regard to the coinfection outcome, as experimental coinfection trials reveal: for instance, previous infection with M. We ignore if this occurs in the wild boar, and similar experimental studies in this host would be advisable. In humans, the bidirectional interaction between the virus HIV and TB is well documented [ 11 , 12 ] each of them acts as a risk factor to the other, by favoring infection or accelerating progression.
Since PCV2 is a well-known agent able to modulate the immune response [ 33 ], it is likely that it may induce a certain degree of immune-compromise in this highly prevalent wild boar population. Such scenario may facilitate interaction with other pathogens, a fact that should be taken into account when dealing with the epidemiology of natural infections. Globally, this situation may have implications regarding the assessment and even the efficacy of future disease control measures [ 46 , 58 ].
This confirms the view that in natural settings multipathogen approaches are more realistic than single-pathogen ones. If confirmed, this finding would have implications regarding the likelihood of coinfected individuals to become significant TB excretors individuals that contribute disproportionately to disease transmission [ 59 ] or even the response of PCV2 infected wild boar piglets to vaccination but see [ 50 ]. Summarizing, this study evidences that coinfection is a frequent event in free-ranging populations and may have complex effects on the infections and the hosts, acting as a risk factor specially when prevalence is high and any of the pathogens has an immunosuppressive feature.
Moreover, in a TB control integrated strategy scenario coinfections might have an implication on the outcome of these measures. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Biomed Res Int v. Biomed Res Int. Published online Jun 3. Joseba M.
Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Individuals in natural populations are exposed to a diversity of pathogens which results in coinfections. Introduction As opposed to controlled laboratory environments, individuals in natural populations are exposed to a diversity of pathogens viruses, bacteria, and parasites which results in coinfections [ 1 ]. Materials and Methods 2. Sampling and Data Collection Samples were collected from wild boars harvested during the hunting season October—February.
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Pathology, Culture, Serology, and PCR The detection of TB-compatible lesions is a good proxy for MTC infection in wild boar [ 39 , 40 ]; therefore, this variable was systematically recorded for all studied wild boars, following a protocol that included the inspection of all relevant organs [ 40 ]. Open in a separate window. Results Figure 1 shows the results of the initial screening of the wild boars of all age classes for TB-compatible lesions and for antibodies against PCV2.
Figure 1. Figure 2.